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Echocardiography 5 minutes before starting  

Examples of pathological findings

—Echocardiographic examinations

—Cardiac function and PA pressure

—Examples of pathological

Valvular heart disease
Intracardiac masses
Pericardial disease
Aortic dissection
Congenital heart disease


Left: dilatative cardiomyopathy (DCM) form the parasternal long axis view. The LV and LA are dilated.

Right: same case from the short axis view. Systolic LV function is severely reduced.

Left: dilated cardiomyopathy with severly reduced systolic LV function as seen from the four- chamber view.

Right: here a DCM with severe mitral regurgitation.

Left: a severe myocadial hypertrophy can point to a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, but also as in this case, to a myocardial involvement by amyloidosis.

Right: hypertrophic nonobstruc- tive cardiomyopathy (HNCM) with normal systolic LV function. Atrial arrhythmia makes difficult the interpretation of diastolic function.

Left: apical form of a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Right: lung-crossing ultrasound contrast agent in a case of isolated left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC). Notice deep trabecula- tions in LV, especially the apical region.