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Examples of pathological findings

—Echocardiographic examinations

—Cardiac function and PA pressure

—Examples of pathological

Valvular heart disease
Intracardiac masses
Pericardial disease
Aortic dissection
Congenital heart disease

Intracardiac masses

Tumors | Other intracardiac masses


Two examples of thrombi in the left atrial appendix (LAA) seen at a TEE examination.

Left: this thrombus has a wide attachment in the LAA, but also an extreme mobile part, that prolapses in part as far as the mitral valve.

Right: large wall-adherent thrombus in LAA.

Two examples of thrombi in the left atrium at the TEE examination.

Left: a large, in part wall-adherent thrombus at the LA roof can be seen in a severe mitral stenosis case.

Right: a large free-floating thrombus bounces at irregular intervals against a mitral valve prosthesis.

Two other examples of thrombi in the LA.

Left: the TEE examination of a thrombosed mitral prosthesis shows a large wall-adherent LA thrombus that reaches to the prosthesis.

Right: mitral stenosis TTE examination. A large mobile thrombus in LA mimics an atrial mymoma.

Two examples of LV thrombi at the TTE examination.

Left: wall-adherent thrombus in LV apex aneurysm.

Right: wall-adherent, echolucent thrombus in LV apex in a dilatative cardiomyopathy.

Two further examples of thrombi in the LV apex at the TTE examination.

Left: wall-adherent thrombus, but with a narrow attachment.

Right: here a similar case. Echolucent aspect and myxoma-like movement speak for a relative recently formed thrombus.



Two examples of LA myxomas at the TEE examination.

Left: large characteristic left atrial myxoma with attachment at the atrial septum. The myxoma prolapses in the LV through the mitral valve during diastole.

Right: mid-size, round myxoma with attachment in the superior portion of the atrial septum.

Two further examples of masses at the TTE examination.

Left: large metastasis of a renal cell carcinoma in the RV.

Right: large mediastinal mass at the level of the great vessels.


Other intracardiac masses

Two examples of valvular vege- tations at the TEE examination.

Left: large vegetation attached to a bioprosthesis in aortic position.

Right: large vegetation on a native mitral valve.

Left: large round vegetation on a native tricuspid valve at the TEE examination.

Right: Chiari network in RA at the TTE examination. Notice a hypermobile atrial septum and the clear ultrasound shade due to mitral annular calcificacion.

Left: pronounced spontaneous echo contrast in LAA at the TEE examination.

Right: cardiac involvement of hypereosinophilic syndrome. Well defined masses fill completely the apical regions of both ventricles.


© Derliz Mereles


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