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Examples of pathological findings

—Echocardiographic examinations

—Cardiac function and PA pressure

—Examples of pathological

Valvular heart disease
Intracardiac masses
Pericardial disease
Aortic dissection
Congenital heart disease


Guidelines and Standards
AHA/ACC Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Patients With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, 2020
How to Image Cardiac Amyloidosis (JACC review), 2020
Cardiac Amyloidosis: Evolving Diagnosis and Management (AHA scientific statement), 2020
Multimodality imaging in the diagnosis, risk stratification, and management of patients with DCM: an expert consensus document from the EACVI, 2019
Diagnosis and Evaluation of Dilated Cardiomyopathy (JACC review), 2016

Left: dilatative cardiomyopathy (DCM) form the parasternal long axis view. The LV and LA are dilated.

Right: same case from the short axis view. Systolic LV function is severely reduced.

Left: dilated cardiomyopathy with severly reduced systolic LV function as seen from the four- chamber view.

Right: here a DCM with severe mitral regurgitation.

Left: a severe myocadial hypertrophy can point to a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, but also as in this case, to a myocardial involvement by amyloidosis.

Right: hypertrophic nonobstruc- tive cardiomyopathy (HNCM) with normal systolic LV function. Atrial arrhythmia makes difficult the interpretation of diastolic function.

Links: longitudinal 2D strain in cardiac amyloidosis. The apex is better (red) as die basis (pink).

Rechts: longitudinal 2D Strain in apical HCM. The basis is better (red) as the apex (pink).

Left: apical form of a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Right: lung-crossing ultrasound contrast agent in a case of isolated left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC). Notice deep trabecula- tions in LV, especially the apical region.


© Derliz Mereles


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