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Echocardiography 5 minutes before starting  



Echocardiographic examinations

—Echocardiographic examinations

Transthoracic examination
TEE - views
Stress echocardiography
Contrast echocardiography
Cardiac asynchrony
Strain Imaging
3D | 4D echo
Indications for echocardiography
Training in echocardiography


—Cardiac function and PA pressure

—Examples of pathological
findings




Contrast echocardiography



Transpulmonary contrast agents are used to opacify left heart chambers, e.g. for enhancement of left ventricular endocardial border definition. Difficult Doppler signals can also be enhanced with echocardiographic contrast agents.

Right sided contrast agents are used to exclude shunts, e.g. patent foramen ovale.

More on myocardial contrast echocardiography can be found here.

More information on contrast echocardiography here: Consensus statement on the clinical applications of ultrasonic contrast agents in echocardiography, 2008.


Transpulmonary echocardio- graphic contrast agents will be used, e.g. in case of poor ultrasound image quality, as shown in this case, to enhance assessment of the lateral wall of the left ventricle.

Right sided contrast agents are very useful in the depiction of intracardiac shunt. In this exam- ple, a large ASD can be seen showing a clear negative contrast effect (arrow).

Left: several small left-to-right shunts depicted with color Doppler (PFO fenestrations).

Right: ASA and PFO with massive right-to-left ultrasound contrast agent passage at the end of a Valsalva maneuver.



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